中国少数民族之白族与纳西族

China’s Ethnic Minorities: The Bai and the Naxi People

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中国一共有56个民族,除汉族以外的其余55个法定民族都是少数民族。55个少数民族中,除回族已全部使用汉语外,其他54个民族都有自己的语言。随着中国现代化进程的加快,一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡。尽管中国在少数民族语言保护方面已经取得一定的成绩,但仍然还有很长的路要走。

云南是中国少数民族最多的省,56个民族中,云南就有52个,其中人口在5000人以上的民族有26个,除汉族外,少数民族有25个。这其中最值得了解的民族就是白族与纳西族。

白语是白族的民族共同语。白族的服饰有一个漫长的历史发展过程,并形成了自己的民族特色。白族人喜爱白色,尽管各地服饰稍有不同,但是都以白色衣服为贵。白族以雕刻艺术著名,尤其是石雕与木雕。北京人民大会堂云南厅也使用了白族的木雕。

纳西族主要居住在云南丽江市,是一个古老的民族,以纳西语为民族语言。他们的文字是云南最古老的少数民族象形文字,也就是东巴文,已有上千年历史,是世界上仅存的象形文字。因此,引起了世界各国学者的极大关注与重视。

纳西族除了春节以外,最重要的节日就是火把节。每年农历六月二十四日起,到农历六月二十七日结束。期间家家户户点火把,由年轻人拿着火把在田边、山路上边走边唱,一直到深夜,表示对火神的尊敬,并希望过上美好的生活。
中國一共有56個民族,除漢族以外的其餘55個法定民族都是少數民族。 55個少數民族中,除回族已全部使用漢語外,其他54個民族都有自己的語言。隨著中國現代化進程的加快,一些少數民族語言正在慢慢消亡。儘管中國在少數民族語言保護方面已經取得一定的成績,但仍然還有很長的路要走。

雲南是中國少數民族最多的省,56個民族中,雲南就有52個,其中人口在5000人以上的民族有26個,除漢族外,少數民族有25個。這其中最值得了解的民族就是白族與納西族。

白語是白族的民族共同語。白族的服飾有一個漫長的歷史發展過程,並形成了自己的民族特色。白族人喜愛白色,儘管各地服飾稍有不同,但是都以白色衣服為貴。白族以雕刻藝術著名,尤其是石雕與木雕。北京人民大會堂雲南廳也使用了白族的木雕。

納西族主要居住在雲南麗江市,是一個古老的民族,以納西語為民族語言。他們的文字是雲南最古老的少數民族象形文字,也就是東巴文,已有上千年曆史,是世界上僅存的象形文字。因此,引起了世界各國學者的極大關注與重視。

納西族除了春節以外,最重要的節日就是火把節。每年農曆六月二十四日起,到農曆六月二十七日結束。期間家家戶戶點火<把,由年輕人拿著火把在田邊、山路上邊走邊唱,一直到深夜,表示對火神的尊敬,並希望過上美好的生活。
中国一共有56个民族,除汉族以外的其余55个法定民族都是少数民族。55个少数民族中,除回族已全部使用汉语外,其他54个民族都有自己的语言。随着中国现代化进程的加快,一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡。尽管中国在少数民族语言保护方面已经取得一定的成绩,但仍然还有很长的路要走。
Zhōngguó yīgòng yǒu 56 gè mínzú, chú Hànzú yǐwài de qíyú 55 gè fǎdìng mínzú dōu shì shǎoshù mínzú. 55 gè shǎoshù mínzú zhōng, chú Huízú yǐ quánbù shǐyòng Hànyǔ wài, qítā 54 gè mízú dōu yǒu zìjǐ de yǔyán. Suízhe Zhōngguó xiàndàihuà jìnchéng de jiākuài , yīxiē shǎoshù mínzú yǔyán zhèngzài mànman xiāowáng. Jǐnguǎn Zhōngguó zài shǎoshù mínzú yǔyán bǎohù fāngmiàn yǐjīng qǔdé yīdìng de chéngjì, dàn réngrán háiyǒu hěncháng de lù yào zǒu.
云南是中国少数民族最多的省,56个民族中,云南就有52个,其中人口在5000人以上的民族有26个,除汉族外,少数民族有25个。这其中最值得了解的民族就是白族与纳西族。
Yúnnán shì Zhōngguó shǎoshù mínzú zuìduō de shěng, 56 gè mínzú zhōng, Yúnnán jiù yǒu 52 gè, qízhōng rénkǒu zài 5000 rén yǐshàng de mínzú yǒu 26 gè, chú Hànzú wài, shǎoshù mínzú yǒu 25 gè. Zhè qízhōng zuì zhíde liǎojiě de mínzú jiùshì Báizú yǔ Nàxīzú.
白语是白族的民族共同语。白族的服饰有一个漫长的历史发展过程,并形成了自己的民族特色。白族人喜爱白色,尽管各地服饰稍有不同,但是都以白色衣服为贵。白族以雕刻艺术著名,尤其是石雕与木雕。北京人民大会堂云南厅也使用了白族的木雕。
Báiyǔ shì Báizú de mínzú gòngtóngyǔ. Báizú de fúshì yǒu yīgè màncháng de lìshǐ fāzhǎn guòchéng, bìng xíngchéng le zìjǐ de mínzú tèsè. Báizúrén xǐài báisè, jǐnguǎn gèdì fúshì shāo yǒu bùtóng, dànshì dōu yǐ báisè yīfú wéi guì. Báizú yǐ diāokè yìshù zhùmíng, yóuqí shì shídiāo yǔ mùdiāo. Běijīng Rénmín Dàhuìtáng Yúnnántīng yě shǐyòng le Báizú de mùdiāo.
纳西族主要居住在云南丽江市,是一个古老的民族,以纳西语为民族语言。他们的文字是云南最古老的少数民族象形文字,也就是东巴文,已有上千年历史,是世界上仅存的象形文字。因此,引起了世界各国学者的极大关注与重视。
Nàxīzú zhǔyào jūzhù zài Yúnnán lìjiāngshì, shì yīgè gǔlǎo de mínzú, yǐ Nàxīyǔ wéi mínzúyǔyán. Tāmén de wénzì shì Yúnnán zuì gǔlǎo de shǎoshù mínzú xiàngxíngwénzì, yě jiùshì Dōngbāwén, yǐ yǒu shàngqiānnián lìshǐ, shì shìjiè shàng jǐn cún de xiàngxíngwénzì. Yīncǐ, yǐnqǐ le shìjiè gèguó xuézhě de jídà guānzhù yǔ zhòngshì.

纳西族除了春节以外,最重要的节日就是火把节。每年农历六月二十四日起,到农历六月二十七日结束。期间家家户户点火把,由年轻人拿着火把在田边、山路上边走边唱,一直到深夜,表示对火神的尊敬,并希望过上美好的生活。
Nàxīzú chúle chūnjié yǐwài, zuì zhòngyào de jiérì jiùshì Huǒbǎjié. Měinián nónglì liù yuè èrshísì rì qǐ, dào nónglì liù yuè èrshíqī rì jiéshù. Qījiān jiājiāhùhù diǎn huǒbǎ, yóu niánqīngrén názhe huǒbǎ zài tiánbiān, shānlùshàng biānzǒubiānchàng, yīzhí dào shēnyè, biǎoshì duì huǒshén de zūnjìng, bìng xīwàng guòshàng měihǎo de shēnghuó.
中国一共有56个民族,除汉族以外的其余55个法定民族都是少数民族。55个少数民族中,除回族已全部使用汉语外,其他54个民族都有自己的语言。随着中国现代化进程的加快,一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡。尽管中国在少数民族语言保护方面已经取得一定的成绩,但仍然还有很长的路要走。
There are 56 ethnic groups in China. Aside from the Han, all of the other 55 officially recognized groups are considered ethnic minority groups. With the exception of the Hui, who all speak Mandarin, the members of the other 54 groups all have their own languages. In the wake of China’s increasingly fast-paced modernization, some minority languages are gradually disappearing. Even though China’s efforts to protect minority languages have achieved some success, more still needs to be done.
云南是中国少数民族最多的省,56个民族中,云南就有52个,其中人口在5000人以上的民族有26个,除汉族外,少数民族有25个。这其中最值得了解的民族就是白族与纳西族。
Yunnan is the province where most of China’s ethnic minorities are located. Out of a total of 56 ethnic groups, 52 of them have members living in Yunnan. Of these, 26 groups have a total population of over 5,000. Aside from the Han, these include 25 minority groups. Of these, the Bai and the Naxi are some of the most interesting.
白语是白族的民族共同语。白族的服饰有一个漫长的历史发展过程,并形成了自己的民族特色。白族人喜爱白色,尽管各地服饰稍有不同,但是都以白色衣服为贵。白族以雕刻艺术著名,尤其是石雕与木雕。北京人民大会堂云南厅也使用了白族的木雕。
The Bai language is the common language of the Bai people. Traditional Bai clothing has a long history and has slowly developed its own special stylistic attributes. Bai people like the color white, and even though there are some regional variations among Bai clothing styles, white is highly prized by them all. The Bai are famous for their carving skills and are especially well-known for their skill at stone and wood carving. Bai wood carving art is featured in the Yunnan Hall of the Great Hall of the People in Beijing.
纳西族主要居住在云南丽江市,是一个古老的民族,以纳西语为民族语言。他们的文字是云南最古老的少数民族象形文字,也就是东巴文,已有上千年历史,是世界上仅存的象形文字。因此,引起了世界各国学者的极大关注与重视。
The Naxi mostly live in Lijiang City, Yunnan. The members of this ancient ethnic group speak the Naxi language. Their script, called Dongba, is Yunnan’s oldest picto-ideographic ethnic minority language. Dongba has a history of over a thousand years and is the only hieroglyphic language still in use in the world today. As such, Dongba has attracted the attention of scholars from around the globe.
纳西族除了春节以外,最重要的节日就是火把节。每年农历六月二十四日起,到农历六月二十七日结束。期间家家户户点火把,由年轻人拿着火把在田边、山路上边走边唱,一直到深夜,表示对火神的尊敬,并希望过上美好的生活。
Aside from Spring Festival, the most important Naxi holiday is the Torchlight Festival. This annual holiday starts on the 24th day of the sixth month of the Chinese lunisolar calendar and ends on the 27th day of the same month. During the festival, every family lights torches. Young people sing and carry these torches as they walk along the edges of fields and along mountain roads. This traditional activity, which continues late into the night, expresses the people’s respect for the God of Fire as well as their desire for a happy life.

中国少数民族之白族与纳西族

China’s Ethnic Minorities: The Bai and the Naxi People

中国一共有56个民族,除汉族以外的其余55个法定民族都是少数民族。55个少数民族中,除回族已全部使用汉语外,其他54个民族都有自己的语言。随着中国现代化进程的加快,一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡。尽管中国在少数民族语言保护方面已经取得一定的成绩,但仍然还有很长的路要走。

云南是中国少数民族最多的省,56个民族中,云南就有52个,其中人口在5000人以上的民族有26个,除汉族外,少数民族有25个。这其中最值得了解的民族就是白族与纳西族。

白语是白族的民族共同语。白族的服饰有一个漫长的历史发展过程,并形成了自己的民族特色。白族人喜爱白色,尽管各地服饰稍有不同,但是都以白色衣服为贵。白族以雕刻艺术著名,尤其是石雕与木雕。北京人民大会堂云南厅也使用了白族的木雕。

纳西族主要居住在云南丽江市,是一个古老的民族,以纳西语为民族语言。他们的文字是云南最古老的少数民族象形文字,也就是东巴文,已有上千年历史,是世界上仅存的象形文字。因此,引起了世界各国学者的极大关注与重视。

纳西族除了春节以外,最重要的节日就是火把节。每年农历六月二十四日起,到农历六月二十七日结束。期间家家户户点火把,由年轻人拿着火把在田边、山路上边走边唱,一直到深夜,表示对火神的尊敬,并希望过上美好的生活。

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生词

🔈  Click on a word’s Chinese characters to hear the pronunciation.

专有名词  Proper Nouns

白族Báizúthe Bai ethnic group
纳西族Nàxīzúthe Naxi ethnic group
东巴文DōngbāwénDongba writing (the picto-ideographic writing used by the Naxi ethnic group)
火把节HuǒbǎjiéTorchlight Festival (traditional festival celebrated by several Chinese ethnic groups)
火神HuǒshénGod of Fire
人民大会堂Rénmín DàhuìtángThe Great Hall of the People in Beijing

名词 Nouns

过程guòchéngprocess
特色tèsècharacteristic
进程jìnchéngprogress
服饰fúshìclothing
雕刻diāokècarving
象形文字xiàngxíng wénzìpictograph
农历nónglìtraditional Chinese lunisolar calendar

动词 Verbs

确认quèrènto confirm
取得qǔdéto obtain
值得zhídeto be worth it; to be worth doing something
尊重zūnzhòngto respect
使用shǐyòngto use
引起yǐnqǐto cause; to lead to
关注guānzhùpay attention to
重视zhòngshìplace importance on
表示biǎoshìto show; to demonstrate
现代化xiàndàihuàto modernize
消亡xiāowángto die out
cúnto exist; to deposit (money or an item)
尊敬zūnjìngto respect

形容词 Adjectives

共同gòngtóngcommon
著名zhùmíngfamous
漫长mànchángendless

副词 Adverbs

仍然réngránstill, yet
稍微shāowēia little
尤其yóuqíespecially
jǐnonly

介词 Prepositions

with
every
yóuby

连词 Conjunctions

bìngand
因此yīncǐso; therefore

生词表录音

Vocabulary List Audio (or click any Chinese word for audio)

语法点

1. 随着 suízhe
prep. along with; following; in the wake of; as

随着 (suízhe) is a preposition used to show that one thing is happening alongside or as a result of something else. This passage contains an example of its use as part of the following two-part structure:

随着中国现代化进程的加快,一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡。

Suízhe Zhōngguó xiàndàihuà jìnchéng de jiākuài, yīxiē shǎoshù mínzú yǔyán zhèngzài mànman xiāowáng.

In the wake of China’s increasingly fast-paced modernization, some minority languages are gradually disappearing.

In the above example, 随着 (suízhe) follows this structure:

随着 + general trend + subject + predicate

(A ‘predicate’ is the part of a sentence that contains a verb and tells us something about the subject.)

In our example, we have:

随着 (suízhe) + 中国现代进程的加快 (general trend) + 一些少数民族语言 (subject) + 正在慢慢消亡 (predicate)

When used as part of this structure, 随着 (suízhe) helps to indicate that the change mentioned in the introductory clause causes the change mentioned in the main clause.

随着中国现代化进程的加快 (introductory clause), 一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡 (main clause)。

In this two-part structure, the “general trend” that comes immediately after 随着 often has to do with social or economic trends, like economic development or a social phenomenon. Let’s look at our example again:

随着中国现代化进程的加快,一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡。

In our example, 随着 (suízhe) opens the sentence, which is usually—but not always—the case. Then, the general trend of China’s rapid modernization is introduced (现代化进程的加快). Next we have a main clause with the subject, “some minority languages” (一些少数民族语言) and predicate, “gradually disappearing” (正在慢慢消亡) that describe the result of this trend.

By using 随着 (suízhe) in this sentence, the author is indicating that the general trend of China’s modernization and the disappearance of minority languages are connected, and that modernization is causing languages to gradually disappear.

Here’s another example:

随着年龄的增长,人们会越来越重视健康。

Suízhe niánlíng de zēngzhǎng, rénmen huì yuèláiyuè zhòngshì jiànkāng.

As they age, people pay more and more attention to their health.

Here, 随着 (suízhe) comes first again, followed by a general trend, which in this case is aging. After the introductory clause comes the subject, “people” (人们 rénmen), followed by the predicate, “pay more and more attention to their health” (会越来越重视健康 huì yuèláiyuè zhòngshì jiànkāng).

The use of 随着 (suízhe) in this sentence indicates that the author believes that the general trend of aging causes people to pay more attention to their health.

Can you come up with two example sentences using 随着?

2. 尽管…但是… (jǐnguǎn…dànshì…)
conj. although; even though; despite

Like 随着, 尽管…但是 (jǐnguǎn…dànshì) tends to occur in sentences containing both an introductory and a main clause.

尽管 (jǐnguǎn) is usually (but not always) placed at the beginning of the introductory clause. It introduces some sort of background information that sets the scene for whatever assertion the author makes in the main clause.

Then, 但是 (dànshì) begins the main clause by introducing a fact or assertion that usually contrasts with the background information in the introductory clause.

尽管…但是 (jǐnguǎn…dànshì) appears in the following sentence:

白族人喜爱白色,尽管各地服饰稍有不同,但是都以白色衣服为贵。

Báizúrén xǐ’ài báisè, jǐnguǎn gèdì fúshì shāo yǒu bùtóng, dànshì dōu yǐ báisè yīfú wéi guì.

Bai people like the color white, and even though there are some regional variations among Bai clothing styles, white is highly prized by them all.

Here, 尽管 (jǐnguǎn) introduces some background information (the fact that there is some regional variation among Bai clothing styles). Then, the main clause starting with 但 (dàn) sets up a contrast, explaining that despite the fact that regional variations exist, all Bai groups favor the color white.

Note that although the English word “but” is not included at the beginning of the main clause when the introductory clause contains “even though,” 但 (dàn) or 但是 (dànshì) is often included as part of this construction in Chinese. Adding 但是 (dànshì) may seem odd if you’re a native English speaker, but you’ll soon get used to it.

Let’s look at another example:

我姐姐很爱工作,尽管腿受伤了,她还是坚持去上班了。

Wǒ jiějiě hěn ài gōngzuò, jǐnguǎn tuǐ shòushāngle, dàn tā háishì jiānchí qù shàngbānle.

My sister really loves her job; even though she hurt her leg, she still insists on going to work.

In this sentence, 尽管 (jǐnɡuǎn) appears in the introductory clause to introduce some background information (the fact that the speaker’s sister hurt her leg).

Then comes the main clause, starting with 但 (dàn), the shortened form of 但是 (dànshì). In the main clause, the author introduces a fact that contrasts with the background already introduced regarding the sister’s injury. Even though the sister is hurt, she continues to work.

3. 以…为… (yǐ…wéi…)
prep. to take (something)…as…; to regard (something)…as…

以…为… (yǐ…wéi…) is a relatively formal grammatical construction that has its roots in classical Chinese. It follows the pattern 以 + A + 为 + B and is used to express “to take A as B,” “to regard A as B” or “to consider A as B.”

Although sometimes heard in spoken Chinese, it is more common to see this structure being used in things like official government reports.

Unsurprisingly, since this structure comes from classical Chinese, it can also be found in many four character Chinese idioms such as 以人为本 (yǐrénwéiběn, to put people first; people-oriented).

The construction appears in the following sentence:

白族人喜爱白色,尽管各地服饰稍有不同,但都白色衣服贵。

Báizúrén xǐ’ài báisè, jǐnguǎn gèdì fúshì shāo yǒu bùtóng, dàn dōu yǐ báisè yīfú wéi guì.

Bai people like the color white, and even though there are some regional variations among Bai clothing styles, white is highly prized by them all.

If we consider the phrase 以白色衣服为贵 (yǐ báisè yīfú wéi guì) from the vantage point of the 以 + A + 为 + B structure discussed above, then 白色的衣服 (báisè yīfú, white clothing) is A, while 贵 (guì, valuable; prized) is B. Thus, we could translate this phrase literally as “to regard white clothing as valuable.”

Let’s look at another example:

大部分中国人都米饭主食。

Dà bùfèn Zhōngguó rén dōu yǐ mǐfàn wéi zhǔshí.

Most Chinese people regard rice as their staple food.

If we analyze the phrase 以米饭为主食 (yǐ mǐfàn wéi zhǔshí) according to the 以 + A + 为 + B structure, 米饭 (mǐfàn, rice) is A and 主食 (zhǔshí, staple food) is B. Therefore, this phrase can be literally translated as “to regard rice as a staple food.”

测试

Begin quiz once you have completed the above reading.
2

中国少数民族之白族与纳西族

1 / 5

纳西族的民族共同语是什么?

2 / 5

中国有多少个少数民族?

3 / 5

火把节有哪些活动?

4 / 5

云南有多少个民族?

5 / 5

下面四句话中哪一句是正确的?

Your score is

0%

中国一共有56个民族,除汉族以外的其余55个法定民族都是少数民族。55个少数民族中,除回族已全部使用汉语外,其他54个民族都有自己的语言。随着中国现代化进程的加快,一些少数民族语言正在慢慢消亡。尽管中国在少数民族语言保护方面已经取得一定的成绩,但仍然还有很长的路要走。

云南是中国少数民族最多的省,56个民族中,云南就有52个,其中人口在5000人以上的民族有26个,除汉族外,少数民族有25个。这其中最值得了解的民族就是白族与纳西族。

白语是白族的民族共同语。白族的服饰有一个漫长的历史发展过程,并形成了自己的民族特色。白族人喜爱白色,尽管各地服饰稍有不同,但是都以白色衣服为贵。白族以雕刻艺术著名,尤其是石雕与木雕。北京人民大会堂云南厅也使用了白族的木雕。

纳西族主要居住在云南丽江市,是一个古老的民族,以纳西语为民族语言。他们的文字是云南最古老的少数民族象形文字,也就是东巴文,已有上千年历史,是世界上仅存的象形文字。因此,引起了世界各国学者的极大关注与重视。

纳西族除了春节以外,最重要的节日就是火把节。每年农历六月二十四日起,到农历六月二十七日结束。期间家家户户点火把,由年轻人拿着火把在田边、山路上边走边唱,一直到深夜,表示对火神的尊敬,并希望过上美好的生活。

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